Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of INSPIRatory musclE training (IMT) for reducing postoperative pulmonary complications (PPC): a sham-controlled randomised controlled trial (RCT) (INSPIRE)

After major operations, some patients develop complications of the lungs, including pneumonia. These complications can be serious and may result in long stays in hospital, admission to intensive care and even death. They also prolong recovery from surgery and reduce patients’ quality of life. In the long term, lung complications increase the risk of poor health and even death for up to ten years after surgery.

Poor health due to lung complications also increases healthcare costs. Lung complications are common, affecting on average one in ten patients, with the risk for a particular individual depending on their current health and the type of surgery they are having. Consequently, trying to prevent lung complications is important for patients and the National Health Service (NHS).

The main aim of the study is to compare the number of lung complications between the three groups in the first 30 days after surgery. We will record all lung complications that develop in hospital whilst patients are recovering from surgery and also any hospital admissions for a lung complication after patients are discharged from hospital following their operation. We will also compare the time patients spend in hospital, their quality of life after their operation and survival. The costs of any treatment received and time spent in hospital will also be compared between groups.

This trial is a prospective sham controlled randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) to reduce post operative pulmonary complications before major abdominal and cardiothoracic surgery.